Geological Classification of Rocks

On the basis of geological occurrence, rocks are classified into three categories:

  • Sedimentary Rocks
  • Igneous Rocks
  • Metamorphic Rocks

Sedimentary Rocks

Rocks formed due to deposition of minerals one over another due to action of water, wind, and other natural agents is called sedimentary rocks.

  • Sandstone
  • Limestone
  • Shale
  • Claystone
  • Conglomerate
  • Dolomite

Igneous Rocks

Rocks formed due to volcanic action when magma or lava cools down and solidifies is called igneous rocks

There are two types of igneous rocks:

Plutonic Rocks

Igneous rocks which cools down and solidifies inside the earth surface is called plutonic rocks

  • Granite
  • Pegmatite
  • Gabbro

Volcanic Rocks

Igneous rocks which cools down and solidifies outside the surface of earth is called volcanic rocks.

  • Basalt
  • Obsidian
  • Pumice

Metamorphic Rocks

Rocks formed due to metamorphosis is called metamorphic rocks.

Metamorphosis of rocks is change in nature under the action of heat, pressure, temperature, chemical on sedimentary and igneous rocks is called metamorphic rocks

  • Limestone-Marble
  • Sandstone-Quatrzite
  • Granite-Gneiss
  • Shale-Slate

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